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[地质][环境相关][中英对照]GEF项目四川本底情况(送中央项目办)(5)

一线实稿 樊明璨 来源:樊明璨博客 546浏览 0评论

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五、土壤
V. Soil

四川地域辽阔,土壤类型多样。大致可分为四川东部盆地湿润森林土壤地带、川西南山地河谷森林土壤地带、四川西部山地高原半湿润半干旱森林与高山草甸土壤地带。东部盆地内丘陵连绵,地表出露的主要是侏罗系、白垩系紫色砂泥岩,发育为紫色土,由此形成了著名的“红色盆地”。除西南部及南部的白垩系灌口组和夹关组部分母质呈酸性反应外,其余绝大部分呈中性或碱性反应。在盆地东部渠河和长江之间,为一组东北-西南走向的平行岭谷,山上多出露三迭系须家河组厚层砂岩和二迭系、三迭系石灰岩,发育为黄壤。川西平原集中分布着大面积的潮土。盆周山地土壤具有明显的垂直分布特征,自下而上依次为黄壤-黄棕壤-棕壤-暗棕壤-棕色针叶林土;川西南山地河谷地势高差悬殊,土壤垂直带谱为燥红土、红壤、红棕壤、暗棕壤、棕色针叶林土和山地草甸土;在西部山地高原面上,主要分布山地草甸土、亚高山草甸土、高山草甸土,以及呈块状分布的沼泽土,高山峻岭还分布着高山寒漠土。在高原面以下,主要分布灰褐土、褐土、棕壤,向上还有暗棕壤、棕色森林土及亚高山草甸土。

Sichuan has a vast land with diverse soils. It can be roughly divided into three major soil zones: eastern Sichuan basin humid forest soil zone, southwestern Sichuan mountain valley forest soil zone and western Sichuan mountain plateau subhumid semi-arid forest and alpine meadow soil zone. In the eastern basin, there are continuous hills; the outcrop is mainly Jurassic and Cretaceous purple sandstone and mudstone, which have developed into purple soil and thereby into the well-known “Red Basin”. Except some parent materials in the Cretaceous Guankou formation and Jiaguan formation in southwestern and southern Sichuan react acid, the remaining majority of parent materials react neutral or basic. In eastern basin, between the Quhe River and the Yangtze River is a group of parallel ridge-valleys taking on a northeast-southwest strike; the outcrop on the mountains is mostly thick sandstone of Triassic Xujiahe formation and Triassic and Permian limestone, which have developed into yellow soil. In the Western Sichuan Plain, there is a large area of moisture soil distributed in a concentrated way. The peri-basin mountain soil has an obvious vertical distribution feature, that is, yellow soil, brown yellow soil, brown soil, dark brown soil, brown coniferous forest soil, from bottom to top. In southwestern Sichuan, there is a huge height difference between the mountains and the valleys; the vertical distribution spectrum of soil is dry red soil, red soil, red brown soil, dark brown soil, brown coniferous forest soil and mountain meadow soil. On the surfaces of western mountains and plateaus are mainly mountain meadow soil, subalpine meadow soil, alpine meadow soil and patchy swamp soil; on the lofty ranges is alpine cold desert soil. Below the plateau surface are mainly gray cinnamon forest soil, cinnamon soil, brown soil, dark brown soil, brown forest soil and subalpine meadow soil.

1、四川省岩溶地区成土母岩主要为灰岩、白云质灰岩以及灰岩夹粉砂岩、砾岩等,土壤类型较为丰富。碳酸盐岩质地较纯,含不溶水分较少,风化成土速度慢。岩溶地区土层薄,土壤松散,石砾多,岩土间附着力极低,在缺乏植被保护的情况下土壤容易被冲刷,致使土壤生产力低下。四川省岩溶地区主要有黄色石灰土、棕色石灰土、红色石灰土和黑色石灰土4个亚类,受发育程度和淋溶作用的影响,有部分山地黄壤。
1. The soil-forming rock in Sichuan karst regions is mainly limestone, dolomitic limestone, limestone mixed with aleuvite, conglomerate, etc. There are abundant types of soil. The relatively pure carbonate rock contains little insoluble moisture and slowly weathers to soil. In the karst regions, due to the thin soil layer, loose soil, many gravels and low adhesive force between rocks and soil, the soil not protected by vegetation can be easily eroded and thus become infertile. In the karst regions, there are mainly four soil subgroups: yellow limestone soil, brown limestone soil, red limestone soil and black limestone soil; due to the impact of development degree and eluviation, there is also some mountain yellow soil.

2、川西北高原区主要分布高山草甸土、亚高山草甸土、沼泽土、高山寒漠土。若尔盖、红原、阿坝等县部分地区还有风沙土分布。由于特殊的地理环境,川西北高山峡谷区土壤水平地带性特征已遭到破坏,重新形成新的土壤类型。主要分布着山地灰褐土、山地褐土及潮土、新积土等。
2. In the northwestern Sichuan plateau region, there are mainly alpine meadow soil, subalpine meadow soil, swamp soil and alpine cold desert soil. There is aeolian sandy soil in Zoigê, Hongyuan, Aba and other county-level regions. Due to the special geographical environment, the horizontal distribution features of soil in the northwestern Sichuan mountain-gorge region have been destroyed and some new types of soil are developing, such as mountain gray cinnamon forest soil, mountain cinnamon soil, moisture soil and new accumulative soil.

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