Differences in spatial manifestation: Western landscape painting uses one-point, two-point and three-point perspectives as well as looking-up, looking-straightforward and looking-down observation methods, while traditional Chinese landscape painting uses high-far, plain-far, and deep-far spatial concepts and manifestations and also gives careful consideration to the positions of sky and earth, and also uses varied density, concentration, color richness of mountains, trees, clouds and waters to express trueness degrees, and uses either three-far or six-far method (high-far, plain-far, deep-far, vast-far, bewildered-far, quiet-far) and empty space method to express sense of space.
Differences induced by artistic language, tools and materials: Compared from the angle of major graphic effects
Differences caused by tools and materials. Traditional Chinese landscape painting expresses its artistic conception of landscape through ink (or color) in various shades and humidities, the point-line-plane method, the breaking and pouring effects created by unique tools and materials. Western landscape painting creates various skin texture effects by painting greasepaint and big-molecule media on canvas as well as utilizing color overlap.
Different impressions caused by differences of regional customs. Theoretically, eastern and western paintings stand for different aesthetic standards, morality, values, political tendency, etc.
The rising of literati painting and traditional calligraphy are unique for Chinese ancient painting. The combination of painting with poetry, calligraphy and seal is one of the features of traditional Chinese landscape painting and the major difference between the two kinds of painting. Before the Song Dynasty, the signature on a traditional Chinese landscape painting was hidden. However, due to the influence of literati painting since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, landscape paintings combining poetry, calligraphy and seal began to appear, which thoroughly manifested the beauty of painting itself as well as the other three elements. The four kinds of beauty echo other other to form a natural scene spreading its unique infinite charm in the global art.
III. Mutual influences. When we’re discussing the impact of western art on modern China, especially modern and contemporary art, the western world was just discussing the impact of oriental art, especially Chinese art, on the western world. Some western scholars believed that such impact led to another climax following the Italian Renaissance in the culture history of mankind, namely, the Oriental Renaissance. At the end of the 15th century, the Italian textile workshops directly copied Chinese patterns, and such practice became popular at that time. Chinese birds, lotuses, aquatic birds, artificial hills, cirrus clouds and other patterns appeared on the silk products made by Italy, so did Chinese landscapes occasionally. Such realistic depiction of nature inspired the painters of the Gothic period. Thanks to the impact of the realistic factors in their paintings, the Italian painters revived realism painting of Ancient Rome in the early Renaissance in the 14th century. Lach believed that the pursuit of honest depiction of nature by the realistic or Renaissance painters was undoubtedly influenced by the Orient and stimulated by the exotic plants, animals and other things introduced into Europe. In other words, the quattrocento realism highly praised in the world history of arts was directly influenced by the realistic painting factors of the Song Dynasty of China.