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[艺术][琴棋书画][中英对照]简论中国传统山水画和西洋风景画的异同及相互影响(2)

一线实稿 樊明璨 来源:樊明璨博客 826浏览 0评论

landscapepainting

二、差异:

II. Differences

空间表现的差异:西方风景画有一点、两点、三点透视的应用。以及仰视、平视、俯视的观察方法,中国山水画的空间概念和表现,有高远、平远、深远。同时讲究天地位置。并以山石、树木、云水的疏密、聚散、浓淡虚实。三远法或者六远法(平远、高远、深远、阔远、迷远、幽远。留白(计白当黑)增加想象空间,等手段来表达空间感,

Differences in spatial manifestation: Western landscape painting uses one-point, two-point and three-point perspectives as well as looking-up, looking-straightforward and looking-down observation methods, while traditional Chinese landscape painting uses high-far, plain-far, and deep-far spatial concepts and manifestations and also gives careful consideration to the positions of sky and earth, and also uses varied density, concentration, color richness of mountains, trees, clouds and waters to express trueness degrees, and uses either three-far or six-far method (high-far, plain-far, deep-far, vast-far, bewildered-far, quiet-far) and empty space method to express sense of space.

艺术语言、工具材料造成的的差异:从画面大的效果比较

Differences induced by artistic language, tools and materials: Compared from the angle of major graphic effects

工具材料造成的差异。中国传统山水画,以墨(或色彩)的浓淡干湿,以点线面的手段塑造形体表现山水意境,以独有的工具材料产生的破和泼的方法造型,造境。西方风景画以油彩和大分子媒介即绘制在油画布上,以色彩的叠加及制造不同的肌理效果造型。

Differences caused by tools and materials. Traditional Chinese landscape painting expresses its artistic conception of landscape through ink (or color) in various shades and humidities, the point-line-plane method, the breaking and pouring effects created by unique tools and materials. Western landscape painting creates various skin texture effects by painting greasepaint and big-molecule media on canvas as well as utilizing color overlap.

地狱风俗习惯文化差异造成的不同的观感。从理论高度看待差异,东西方绘画,代表着不同的审美观,道德观,价值观,政治倾向等等。

Different impressions caused by differences of regional customs. Theoretically, eastern and western paintings stand for different aesthetic standards, morality, values, political tendency, etc.

文人画的兴起及传统书法是中国古代绘画所独有,诗词、书法、印章与中国传统山水画的融合,是中国传统山水画的特色,也是两者很大的差别,中国山水画在宋元以前都是藏款受明清以来文人绘画的影像开始出现诗书画印的综合式样,所谓诗中有画画中有诗体现的越发淋漓尽致,绘画的美、诗词的美、书法的美、篆刻的美。四种美交相呼应浑然天成,在世界美术中独树一帜,散发着无穷魅力。

The rising of literati painting and traditional calligraphy are unique for Chinese ancient painting. The combination of painting with poetry, calligraphy and seal is one of the features of traditional Chinese landscape painting and the major difference between the two kinds of painting. Before the Song Dynasty, the signature on a traditional Chinese landscape painting was hidden. However, due to the influence of literati painting since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, landscape paintings combining poetry, calligraphy and seal began to appear, which thoroughly manifested the beauty of painting itself as well as the other three elements. The four kinds of beauty echo other other to form a natural scene spreading its unique infinite charm in the global art.

三、互相影响。当我们在讨论西方美术对近代中国,尤其是现、当代美术的影响时,西方也在探讨东方艺术,尤其是中国艺术对西方的影响。有的西方学者认为,这种影响甚至导致了人类文化史上继意大利文艺复兴后的另一个高峰——“东方文艺复兴”。15世纪末,意大利纺织作坊直接模仿中国图案成为风尚。在意大利制造的丝绸上,出现了中国的飞禽、荷花、水鸟、假山石、卷云等。有时候,竟照搬中国风景画。这类对大自然的现实主义的描绘,对哥特式时期的画家是一种启发。而哥特式时期画家在绘画中的现实主义因素,导致了14世纪文艺复兴初期意大利画家复兴古罗马写实主义绘画。拉赫认为,“现实主义,或者说文艺复兴时期画家追求真实地描绘自然,无疑是受到东方的影响,受到引入欧洲的东方的奇异的新植物、动物和其它物品的刺激。”也就是说,在世界美术史中被推崇的意大利文艺复兴初期现实主义,直接受到中国宋代写实绘画因素的影响。

III. Mutual influences. When we’re discussing the impact of western art on modern China, especially modern and contemporary art, the western world was just discussing the impact of oriental art, especially Chinese art, on the western world. Some western scholars believed that such impact led to another climax following the Italian Renaissance in the culture history of mankind, namely, the Oriental Renaissance. At the end of the 15th century, the Italian textile workshops directly copied Chinese patterns, and such practice became popular at that time. Chinese birds, lotuses, aquatic birds, artificial hills, cirrus clouds and other patterns appeared on the silk products made by Italy, so did Chinese landscapes occasionally. Such realistic depiction of nature inspired the painters of the Gothic period. Thanks to the impact of the realistic factors in their paintings, the Italian painters revived realism painting of Ancient Rome in the early Renaissance in the 14th century. Lach believed that the pursuit of honest depiction of nature by the realistic or Renaissance painters was undoubtedly influenced by the Orient and stimulated by the exotic plants, animals and other things introduced into Europe. In other words, the quattrocento realism highly praised in the world history of arts was directly influenced by the realistic painting factors of the Song Dynasty of China.

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