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[文化][其他杂类][中英对照]全球变化背景下土地退化防治的挑战与创新发展(1)

一线实稿 樊明璨 来源:樊明璨博客 558浏览 0评论

landdegradation

全球变化背景下土地退化防治的挑战与创新发展

Challenges and Innovative Development of Land Degradation Control in the Context of Global Change

江xx

Jiang xx

(2013年5月7日 中国北京)

(May 7, 2013, Beijing, China)

保护人类赖以生存的耕地、林地、草地、湿地和人居社区等为主体的土地资源,实现土地可持续管理,已成为当今人类社会实现可持续发展的首要任务。今天,我侧重从分析全球变化背景下土地退化防治面临新挑战入手,探讨土地退化防治的新思路,分享中国土地退化防治的新经验,旨在吁请各国政府和科学界同仁坚定信心,加强合作,把土地退化防治与应对气候变化、保护生物多样性、消除贫困和实现千年发展目标紧密联系起来,共同推进绿色发展,建设美丽地球。

Protecting the land resources that mankind survives on, which mainly consist of arable land, forest land, grassland, wetland and human communities, and realizing sustainable land management has already become the primary mission of our society to achieve sustainable development. Today, I’ll discuss some new ideas of land degradation control and share some new experience of China’s combating land degradation by starting with analyzing the new challenges faced by land degradation combat in the context of global change. My speech is intended to appeal to the governments of various countries and the peers of the scientific circle to be more confident and cooperative to jointly advance green development and build a beautiful earth by combining land degradation control with addressing climatic changes, protecting biodiversity, eliminating poverty and achieving the millennium development goals.

一、土地退化防治面临的新挑战

I. New challenges faced by land degradation control

(一)人口增加、经济发展与资源短缺依然是土地退化防治所面临的巨大压力

(I) Population increase, economic development and resources shortage remain a huge pressure of land degradation control

近一个多世纪以来,人口急剧增长和经济快速发展给土地资源与生态环境带来的双重压力日趋加剧。据联合国人口基金会1999年公布的统计数字和全球人口增长历程表明:1804年世界人口只有10亿,1927年增长到20亿(间隔123年),1960年达到30亿(间隔33年),1975年达到40亿(间隔15年),1987年达到50亿,1999年上升到60亿。直至2011年10月31日成为全球第70亿人口日(间隔12年)。可见,20世纪全球人口增长近4倍,GDP总量增长18倍以上,人均GDP (按1990年美元换算)增长5倍。到2011年全球GDP总量(69.66万亿美元),相当于2000年(32万亿)的2倍多。此间,世界耕地也从19世纪初的4.5亿公顷扩大到15亿公顷。由此,必然加速毁林造田、过度放牧、无序开发、污染物排放等,给土地资源保护和退化土地防治带来巨大压力。

Over more than a century, the rapid population growth and economic development have increasingly pressured the land resources and ecological environment. According to the statistics announced by the United Nations Population Fund in 1999 and the history of global population increase, there was only 1 billion people in the world in 1804, but the figure hit 2 billion in 1927 (123 years later), 3 billion in 1960 (33 years later), 4 billion in 1975 (15 years later), 5 billion in 1987, 6 billion in 1999 and 7 billion on October 31, 2011 (12 years later). This indicates that the global population in the 20th century increased by nearly 4 times, the GDP by above 18 times and the GDP per capita (converted by 1990 US dollar)by 5 times. By 2011, the global GDP (69.66 trillion dollars) was more than twice that in 2000 (32 trillion dollars). During this period, the global arable land expanded from 450 million hectares in the early 19th century to 1.5 billion hectares.This necessarily accelerated the conversion of forest land to arable land, overgrazing, unordered development and pollutant emission and therefore pressured land resources protection and land degradation control to a great extent.

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