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[文化][其他杂类][中英对照]全球变化背景下土地退化防治的挑战与创新发展(2)

一线实稿 樊明璨 来源:译游客 696浏览 0评论

landdegradation

当前,发展中国家和相对落后国家也在大力发展经济,新兴经济体已成为拉动全球经济复苏的重要力量。由于这些发展中国家,特别是地处干旱半干旱地区的非洲、中亚等国家尚未摆脱粗放型发展模式,过多地依赖大量消耗土地等各种资源赢得经济增长,进而加大了土地退化危害程度和防治难度。

Currently, the developing and relatively underdeveloped countries are also vigorously developing their economy, and the emerging economies have become an important force to drive the recovery of global economy. As the developing countries, particularly those located in arid and semi-arid regions such as Africa and China, haven’t yet broken away from the extensive development mode in which they have to win economic growth by enormously consuming various resources including land, the hazardous degree of land degradation and its control difficulty are increased.

(二)人类活动和气候变化等多因素交织给土地退化防治带来新挑战

(II) Land degradation control faces new challenges due to many factors such as human activities and climatic change

气候变化是迄今为止人类面临的最为严峻的环境问题和最为复杂的全球性挑战。据联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)第四次科学评估报告,地球气候正经历着以全球变暖、降水格局改变和极端气候事件频繁为主要特征的显著变化。全球地表平均温度上升了0.74℃,预计到2100年将达到1.1~6.4 ℃。气候变化造成全球土地退化的速率加快,尤其是连续干旱与洪水风暴等极端气候事件频发,导致生态系统更为脆弱,土地生产能力极度下降。伴随着气候变化,干旱不仅会在新的地区出现,而且使得原本就易受干旱威胁的地区遭遇土地退化危害更为频繁和严重。

Climatic change has been the severest environmental problem and the most complicated global challenge so far. According to the fourth scientific assessment report issued by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the earth’s climate is undergoing some significant changes mainly characterized by global warming, precipitation pattern change and frequent extreme climate events. The average temperature of global surface increased by 0.74℃ and will increase by 1.1~6.4 ℃ in 2100 in estimation. Climate change accelerates global land degradation, particularly such frequent extreme climate events as continuous drought, flood and storm lead to more vulnerable ecosystem and significantly declined land productivity. In addition, drought does not only appear in some new regions, but also causes those regions easily vulnerable to drought to suffer more frequent and worse land degradation.

因气候变化所造成的影响,与人类破坏森林、过度放牧、盲目开垦以及不合理土地利用等所产生的叠加效应,使得全球尤其是干旱半干旱地区土地退化防治面临更加严峻的挑战。据联合国环境规划署(UNEP)公布的数字,过度的人类活动以及气候变化导致占全球41%的干旱地区土地严重退化。目前,全球有110多个国家、10亿多人口正遭受土地荒漠化的威胁,其中1.35亿人面临流离失所的危险。可见,在气候变化和人类扰动等多因素交织背景下,全球土地退化防治面临着新的、更加严峻的挑战。

Due to the impact of climate change and the superimposition effect produced by artificially damaged forest, overgrazing, blind reclamation and unreasonable land use, the whole world, especially the arid and semi-arid regions, is facing a severer challenge to combat land degradation. According to the figures announced by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), excessive human activities and climate change have led to serious land degradation in arid regions covering 41% of the global area. Currently, more than 110 countries and over 1 billion people in the world are being threatened by land desertification, and 135 million people may face the danger to become homeless. This indicates that the global land degradation control is confronting new and serverer challenges in the context of climate change, human disturbances and other influencing factors.

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