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[文化][银行赞助][中英对照]美国银行体育赞助案例研究论文

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Bank-of-America

美国银行体育赞助案例研究

A Case Study on Bank of America Sports Sponsorship

作为一家规模巨大的商业银行,体育赞助已经成为美国银行的品牌识别元素之一。这得益于美国银行早期以及它的前身一直重视和利用体育赞助策略。客观上更重要的是,二战之后,美国体育产业和金融业都经历了巨大的发展、繁荣,因此,充分借助体育因素进行品牌推广,无疑是美国银行蓬勃发展的重要推动力。

Sports sponsorship has become one of the brand recognition elements of Bank of America as a large-scale commercial bank thanks to its invariable valuation and utilization of sports sponsorship strategy in its early days and those as a former body. From the objective perspective, what much more matters is that the sports and finance industries of America went through tremendous development and prosperity after World War II and therefore making most use of sports elements for branding was without doubt an important drive to the vigorous growth of Bank of America.

经过长期的经验积累,面临市场环境的变化,银行高层势必要梳理或者调整他们选择体育赞助项目的标准及程序。这个时代已不是某一项运动极度风靡就能帮助某个品牌迅速成长的时代了,也不是简单的品牌关联就能打动消费者的。所以,当赞助商们开始要求选择的赞助项目能够带来直接的业务回报时,是不可以理解的。当一项体育赞助能够同时满足美银三个主要业务类型的直接的return on investment要求时,无疑这项赞助就是可行的。这是一个简单明确的标准,看起来没有错。

Through long-term experience accumulation and facing varying market circumstances, the bank’s senior management has to sort out or adjust their criteria and procedures of selecting a sports sponsorship opportunity. This is no longer an era in which a very hot sport can help a brand grow rapidly, nor that simple brand association can motivate consumers. In that case, it’s unreasonable that sponsors begin to demand immediate return on investment from sponsorship opportunities they choose. For Bank of America, a sponsorship is undoubtedly feasible when it meets the requirements of the bank’s three major business types on immediate return on investment. This is a simple and explicit criterion and seems right.

按照这个体系来评估,对“NASCAR”和“the Dallas Cowboys”的赞助项目是合乎标准的,所以赞同继续赞助。理由不仅仅是它们能带来广泛的粉丝群(这也是其等价物回报,例如文化衫、比赛计分牌、电视直播等回报的价值所在)以及由这些粉丝群和众多的参与者们本身是有银行业务价值的,而且还因为这两项赛事或组织仍然处于扩张发展的时期,其所产生的基础建设、经营管理融资需求是银行业者们非常看重的。而另外两个选择中,U.S. Olympic Committee并未有举办近期奥运会的计划,所以不会产生类似的资金需求。the Professional Golf Association (PGA) Tour,在case中也未提及这方面的机遇。对于逐步退出这项赛事的赞助,我完全赞同The leadership council的观点。

Evaluated according to this criterion, two sponsorship opportunities, NASCAR and the Dallas Cowboys, conform to the criterion and therefore receive continued sponsorships. Such a decision is made not only because of their enormous fans (where the value exists for return on their equivalents such as DIY T-shirts, score boards and live TV programs), but also of the value of such fans and numerous participants to the banking businesses in addition to the banker’s high valuation of the infrastructure construction and management-induced financing demands derived from the two expanding sports events or organizations. On the other hand, of the other two alternatives, the U.S. Olympic Committee doesn’t plan to hold Olympic Games in recent period and therefore brings no similar financing demands; for the Professional Golf Association (PGA) Tour, no similar opportunities are mentioned in the case. Like the leadership council, I totally agree with the decision of gradually quitting sponsoring the sports event.

1984年洛杉矶奥运会之后,美国才对奥运开始有认识,直至1996年亚特兰大奥运会,才让美国人对奥运有了充分的了解。而借助1996年亚特兰大奥运会,可口可乐成为最大的获益品牌。关于奥运的赞助,更多地是在美国本土之外的地区引起关注,而在美国本土,奥运仍然不是那么深入人心。因此,case中说美银94%的revenue来自美国国内来看,赞助奥委会并不会给美国银行带来预期的收益。

After the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984, America just began to build its understanding of Olympics; not until the Atlanta Olympics in 1996, America gained its full understanding. With the help of this Olympics, Coca-Cola became the most benefited brand. Compared to America itself, sponsoring Olympics receives more attention outside America because Olympics is not that warmly welcomed by Americans. According to the fact mentioned in the case that 94% of the revenue gained by Bank of America comes from America itself, sponsoring Olympics won’t bring the bank anticipated income.

我们知道,体育赞助作为企业公关战略中的一个很小的分支,它主要承担的是企业或品牌形象的公共传播和为形象传播提供积极健康的associations(此处解释为联想,原文的词,请推敲),它先天不具备迅速提升知名度的功能,而恰恰是在已有的知名度上赋予品牌正向元素。

As we know, sports sponsorship as a very small branch of corporate public relation strategy is mainly intended to publicly communicate corporate or brand image and induce positive and sound associations. By nature, it cannot skyrocket awareness but endow brand with positive elements on the basis of gained awareness.

那么Ray Bednar和他的团队制定的筛选标准又有什么问题呢?

So what’s the problem with the screening criteria developed by Ray Bednar and his team?

首先,这个标准应当强调体育赞助的公关属性。它所提供的由体育运动带来的brand awareness, differentiation, favorability, positive associations等的正面联想给赞助商,是基本的功能和要求。次之,体育赞助能够影响到某项体育赛事的参与者、粉丝、电视观众等,这个群体越庞大,其所产生的return on business objectives和Marketing Assets的价值就越高。

First off, the criteria should emphasize the public relation property of sports sponsorship. Its very basic function and requirement is to bring sponsors brand awareness, differentiation, favorability and positive associations. Then, sports sponsorship can influence the participants, fans and TV audience of a sports event. The bigger size of them leads to higher value of return on business objectives and marketing assets.

作为一个基因中就带有体育活动的大银行品牌,选择体育赞助项目时,首要应当关注的是该项体育赛事的广泛性,以及是否受到本银行客户群的喜爱,再应当关注赞助本身能够换取多少Marketing Assets,以使得赞助活动得到更广泛的传播,利益最大化。至于赞助本身能否给银行带来直接的return on investment,这样的考虑可以理解,看起来也没有错,但它不该列为优先考虑。我们可以设想,一支来自中国的棒球队要来德州进行一场友谊赛,这支球队不会成为美银的客户,大洋彼岸的中国人也并不关注这场比赛,也没有众多的粉丝和电视直播,那么美银应该赞助这场比赛吗?

When it comes to selecting a sports sponsorship opportunity, Bank of America as a big bank brand carrying a sports gene should firstly consider the popularity of a sports event and whether it is favored by the bank’s clients, followed by how much sponsorship itself can be converted to marketing assets so as to further communicate the sponsorship and maximize benefits. However, whether sponsorship can bring the bank immediate return on investment should not be considered first although such practice is understandable and seems right. Let’s envisage a case—a baseball team from China goes to Texas for a friendly match. Neither will the team become the client of Bank of America, nor will the Chinese people on the other side of the ocean pay attention to the match or there be any fans or live broadcasts. So should Bank of America sponsor the match?

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